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The behavior of nanoscale materials can change rapidly with time either because the environment changes rapidly or because the influence of the environment propagates quickly across the intrinsically small dimensions of nanoscale materials. Extremely fast time resolution studies using X-rays, electrons and neutrons are of very high interest to many researchers and is a fast-evolving and interesting field for the study of dynamic processes. Therefore, in situ structural characterization and measurements of structure-property relationships covering several decades of length and time scales (from atoms to millimeters and femtoseconds to hours) with high spatial and temporal resolutions are crucially important to understand the synthesis and behavior of multidimensional materials. The techniques described in this book will permit access to the real-time dynamics of materials, surface processes and chemical and biological reactions at various time scales. This book provides an interdisciplinary reference for research using in situ techniques to capture the real-time structural and property responses of materials to surrounding fields using electron, optical and x-ray microscopies (e.g. scanning, transmission and low-energy electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy) or in the scattering realm with x-ray, neutron and electron diffraction.