This book is an important new resource for clinicians caring for ventilator dependent children, who often have complex health care needs, are supported by advanced technology and are at high-risk of serious complications. Despite the complicated health care needs of children who rely on chronic respiratory support, there are few guidelines and little evidence available to guide the clinicians who care for these patients. This book covers the many aspects involved in the care of these complex children, with input from experts in the fields of pediatric pulmonology, intensive care, ethics, respiratory therapy, and nursing. In depth chapters provide an introduction to the use of chronic invasive and non-invasive ventilation in children and describe and review what is known about methods of delivering ventilator support, care of the chronically ventilated patient in the community , use of chronic ventilator support in patients with disorders commonly leading to respiratory failure and outcomes for patients and their caregivers. This book is intended to be useful not only for pediatric pulmonologists, but also for intensivists, cardiologists, physical medicine/rehabilitation specialists, nurses, respiratory therapists and the primary care physicians involved in the complexities of managing care for this unique group of special needs children.