This book shows how philanthropy can be a primary force in the transfer of technology in transitional societies. It demonstrates the necessity of retraining of people and how this endeavor is as important as the technology itself. It is essentially about Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Latvia, Estonia, with somewhat smaller emphases on Russia, Romania and South Africa. It chronicles, explains, and analyzes western assistance efforts in Eastern Europe between 1989 and 2000 in the context of the political and economic events of the period, with particular emphasis on the activities of The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Factors that made transfers more or less successful and the role of social institutions and human factors will be highlighted. Significant illustrations include the creation of a small enterprise sectors, MBA programs, economic programs, and new markets and financial institutions. The material provides the reader with a clear understanding of how institutions for economic education emerged in Central and Eastern Europe, what role of US foundations and academic institutions played, and what the interplay with local personalities involved.